Indium Tin Oxide (ITO, or more properly Tin doped Indium Oxide) is a very common transparent conductive oxide (TCO) film. It may reasonably be described as an alloy of In2O3 and SnO2. This material has extremely complicated refractive indices with optical absorption in both the UV and NIR regions. ITO is used extensively in most commercial flat panel displays and touch screens. While it is dependable and widespread, ITO cannot be called an optically invariant material. Each manufacturers? ITO films have slightly to widely different refractive indices. Further complicating the optical description of such films is ITO?s well known graded index behavior. This is particularly noticeable when ITO films are deposited at thicknesses above 100nm. It becomes quite obvious that the complex refractive indices change as one moves in the z (thickness) direction of the film. In such cases, simple (spatially independent) index models will not adequately mimic the spectral reflectance data.
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